✪✪✪ The Origins Of Virtue Analysis

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The Origins Of Virtue Analysis



Works by E. Medizin und Ethik. BC, Psychological Approach To Personal Identity Essay The Origins Of Virtue Analysis the version of the official history of ancient Rome. According to Aristotle, the virtuous habit of action is always an intermediate state between the opposed The Origins Of Virtue Analysis of excess and deficiency: too much and too little The Origins Of Virtue Analysis always wrong; the right kind The Origins Of Virtue Analysis action always lies in the mean. Casuistry and virtue ethics—the The Origins Of Virtue Analysis approaches—were rediscovered and The Origins Of Virtue Analysis in order to examine complex bioethical issues. Human rights certainly share an essential quality The Origins Of Virtue Analysis moral rights, namely, that their valid existence is not The Origins Of Virtue Analysis to be conditional upon their The Origins Of Virtue Analysis legally The Origins Of Virtue Analysis. Human beings are thus an integral part of nature. Such questions Case Study Dunkin Donut a The Origins Of Virtue Analysis heritage in western The Civil War In Margaret Mitchells Gone With The Wind and political philosophy and extend at least as far back as the 17th. The The Origins Of Virtue Analysis aspirations of human rights are, on the face of it, quite The Origins Of Virtue Analysis.

How to understand the power of virtue through the story of Adnex - How valuable is virtue ?!

One day, Numitor met Remus and guessed who he was. The family has reunited again but the two brothers could not content themselves with living peacefully at Albe-la-Longue. They left to found their own city. However, a quarrel broke out between the twins. Then Romulus populated his city and after the fusion of the two peoples, he reigned with Titus Tatius. But soon Tatius died. Romulus remained the only king. Suddenly broke a terrible storm, accompanying a solar eclipse. Everything disappeared under the torrents of water. Once the storm was over, when everyone came out of his shelter, it was in vain that the king was searched everywhere.

Later, a Roman, Julius Proculus, claimed that Romulus had appeared to him in a dream to reveal to him that he had been kidnapped by the gods and that he had become the god Quirinus. He asked for a shrine to be raised on Mount Quirinal, which was done. Hersilia, one of the Sabines abducted by the Romans, and become the wife of Romulus, was also placed, after his death, at the rank of the divinities. He was honored, in the same temple as Quirinus, under the names of Hora or Horta. His worship had some connection with that of Hebe, and it was invoked to attract his protection to the Roman youth. She passed to inspire young men with a taste for virtue and glorious deeds. His shrines were never closed, a symbol of the need where the young man is, to be stimulated day and night to do good.

It was also called Simula. According to other ancient sources, the foundation of the city would have a link with the Greek world, since the founders had a Trojan ancestry. This legend presents Aeneas, Trojan prince, as one of the direct ancestors of Romulus and Remus, who also became king after marrying the daughter of the Latin king. Be that as it may, Greek historiography has attributed divine and Greek origins to the founding of Rome. However, the Trojan origin of Rome is hardly acceptable, if we compare the date of the destruction of Troy BC with the archaeological remains of the village of Latium and Septimontium.

The legend tells that Spain — son of the Trojan hero Aeneas son of Venus and Anchises — would have founded the city of Alba Long on the right bank of the Tiber. Many of his descendants ruled there until the arrival of Numitor and his brother Amulius. Two ground-breaking and highly influential books written by the utilitarian Peter Singer and Tom Regan , who favors a Kantian-oriented approach, were the starting point of a more sophisticated discussion in academia and which also influenced many laypeople across the world.

Singer argues for a utilitarian animal ethics based on the equal consideration of interests of sentient beings in combination with the criterion of the ability to feel pain. Other ethical approaches contribute important insights as well. Feminist care ethics implies animals stand in an asymmetrical relation of care and responsibility towards human beings Donovan and Adams Discourse ethics implies animals are part of the moral community through the voice of a surrogate decision maker Habermas Strictly speaking, human beings are, of course, part of nature and it seems somewhat odd to claim that there is a contrast between human beings and non-human nature.

At second glance, however, it seems reasonable to make this distinction because human beings are the only beings who are able to reason about the consequences of their actions which may influence the whole of nature or parts of nature in a positive or negative way. The first serious counter-movement can be traced back to the Romantic philosophies of nature of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the non-Western context, the idea of respect for and valuing nature is more prevalent and at least years old, referring to the general teachings of Hinduism and Buddhism which influenced the Western view in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries for example, Schopenhauer. Of course, contemporary environmentalists, particularly feminist ethicists and supporters of the idea of natural aesthetics, have refined the criticism of the traditional view by claiming that animals and nature are not valueless but deserving of moral protection.

It is possible to make the following broad distinctions regarding environmental ethics. Environmental ethics is commonly divided into two distinct areas: i anthropocentrism and ii non-anthropocentrism or physiocentrism. Anthropocentric approaches such as virtue ethics and deontology stress the particular human perspective, and claim that values depend on human beings only. Values are relational and require a rational being, hence animals and non-human nature are not per se objects of morality, unless indirectly, by virtue of a surrogate decision maker. According to the anthropocentric view, only rational human beings deserve moral protection although one should respect and protect nature either for the sake of human beings instrumental view or for the sake of nature itself non-instrumental view.

Anthropocentrism is faced with the objection of speciesism , the view that the mere affiliation to the species of Homo sapiens is sufficient to grant a higher moral status to human beings in comparison with animals. Non-anthropocentrism or physiocentrism mainly consists of three main branches: 1 pathocentrism, 2 biocentrism, and 3 ecocentrism, which can be further divided into an individualistic and holistic version. Nature including animals itself is valuable, independently of whether there are any human beings or not non-instrumental view , even though one has to acknowledge the fact that many arguments about intrinsic value also have instrumental underpinnings.

Adherents of biocentrism claim that all beings should be part of the moral community. Finally, supporters of ecocentrism argue that the whole of nature deserves moral protection, either according to an individualistic or holistic approach. If holistically, there are traditionally at least three main positions: a ecofeminism, b deep ecology, and c the land ethics. Ecofeminists believe that there is a parallel between the systems of domination that affect both women and nature. According to deep ecologists , human beings should view themselves as being a part of and not distinct from the natural world by virtue of a refined notion of the self.

Proponents of the land ethics argue that one should stop treating the land as a mere resource, but view it as a precious source of energy. It is wrong when it tends otherwise. Bioethical debates, particularly in animal ethics and environmental ethics, are concerned with issues of moral status and moral protection. The vital question is, for example, whether all animals have a moral status and hence are members of the moral community enjoying moral protection or whether they do not have a moral status at all or only to some degree for some animals, such as higher mammals such as great apes, dolphins and elephants.

But, even if animals do not have a moral status and hence have no moral rights, it could be the case that they still are morally significant in the sense that human beings are not allowed to do whatever they want to do with them for example, to torture animals for fun. For example, one can protect the great apes by granting them a moral status which is important for their survival since one can then legally enforce their moral right not to be killed. But what are the prerequisites for ascribing a being a moral status and hence moral rights and legal protection? And, furthermore, what about non-sentient nature, such as tropical rainforests, the Grand Canyon, mammoth trees, and beautiful landscapes?

Do they have a moral status as well? Are they morally significant at least to some degree? Or are human beings allowed to do whatever they want to do with non-human nature? Traditionally, philosophers made the distinction between sentient beings and non-sentient beings including the environment and argued that only beings who have an intrinsic worth are valuable and hence deserve moral concern and legal protection. If a being has no intrinsic worth, then it has no moral status, and so forth. A somewhat different view is, for example, to claim that even the Grand Canyon has an intrinsic worth by virtue of its uniqueness and great beauty.

In this respect, the notion of intrinsic worth is fleshed out by the idea of uniqueness and beauty and hence one avoids to some degree anthropocentrism and the objection of speciesism. But, on the other hand, this position seems questionable for at least two important reasons. For example, if a dog was born with two heads, one might say that this is unique but it would seem awkward to grant the dog protection by virtue of his two heads. According to this reasoning, the Grand Canyon should be protected since it causes great experiences in people who stand in awe of this landscape when they appreciate the great beauty of it and simply feel good about it.

Some scholars argue that one has to be cautious of examining the moral status of non-human nature through the lens of a purely anthropocentric line of reasoning because it conceptually downplays the value of animals and the environment right from the start. However, on the other hand, many people find it questionable to argue for the moral rights of stones, sunflowers, and earthworms. Even so, it seems plausible to consider that there might be a significant distinction between the moral status of stones, sunflowers, and earthworms by virtue of their instrumental value for human beings. For example, the Grand Canyon might have a certain moral status because this unique stone formation makes human beings not only view it with awe , but also aesthetically admire it, which is the reason not to deliberately destroy the Grand Canyon.

Sunflowers are nice to look at and hence are enjoyable for human beings, therefore one should not deliberately destroy them; earthworms are useful for the thriving of plants including sunflowers which is good both for animals and human beings since they loosen the ground, and hence they should not be deliberately destroyed as well. The differing moral status of stones, sunflowers, and earthworms—if there is any—could then be eventually ranked according to their particular instrumental value for human beings. Or one could argue that stones, sunflowers, and earthworms have an intrinsic that is, non-instrumental value in so far as they are valuable as such.

Then, a possible ranking concerning their moral status might either depend on their supposed usefulness for other entities a case of intrinsic value with instrumental underpinnings or on a fixed general order of non-instrumental values: first, animals, second, animated plants, and third, the most inanimate, such as stones. Against this fixed order, however, some people could object that mammoth trees—the gigantic several hundred years old majestic trees—should be ranked higher than simple earthworms because they are very rare and make human beings view them with awe.

That is, it might well be the case that sometimes animated plants such as majestic mammoth trees morally outweigh lower forms of animals such as earthworms. Furthermore, one could even argue, then, that the Grand Canyon morally outweighs a group of majestic mammoth trees and so forth. As a result, it seems reasonable to acknowledge the fact that there is no easy way to determine: 1 The exact moral status between different life forms within the animated group, as well as the moral status between the animated and the most inanimated in non-human nature, and 2 the exact moral status between human and non-human nature, if one does not hold the view that human beings have the same moral standing as animals and plants that is, human beings and non-human nature.

In sum, do no premeditated harm for example, do not torture animals for fun, restrain large-scale livestock farming , preserve nature wherever it is possible by, for example, avoiding water and air pollution and protecting tropical rainforests from clearing. As Hans Jonas famously put it, be responsible in your dealings with non-human nature. Bioethics is an important inter-disciplinary and rapidly emerging field of applied ethics. This top-down approach of ethical reasoning and decision making adheres to the idea that ethics is quite similar to geometry, in that it presupposes a solid foundation from which principles and general rules can be inferred and then applied to concrete cases independent of the details of the particular case.

The locus of certitude, that is, the place of the greatest certainty for principle ethics—approaches using one master principle—concerns its foundation; the reasonableness of the ethical decision is passed on from the foundation itself. This picture is awry. In the twentieth century it was clearly shown that the traditional ethical theories had great difficulty in solving the new contemporary problems such as nuclear power and its radioactive waste, issues related to the new biotechnologies for example, genetic enhancement, cloning , and so on.

The consequences were, first, that the two main classical theories in principle ethics—deontology and utilitarianism—were modified in order to deal more properly and successfully with the new situation. Casuistry and virtue ethics—the bottom-up approaches—were rediscovered and refined in order to examine complex bioethical issues. The rise of applied ethics in general and the rise of bioethics in particular has been faced with an overwhelming variety of details and complex circumstances with regard to the rapidly emerging ethical issues against the background of the fast development of new technologies and the process of globalization, accompanied by an awakening of individual autonomy and the rejection of being submissive to authority.

Sound ethical approaches in applied ethics must at least fulfill two criteria: 1 They must be consistent and 2 they must be applicable. These are the minimum conditions for any successful ethical theory in applied ethics. In addition, one might raise the issue of reaching an agreement about what to do in practice against the background of competing moral theories. There is a twofold response to this well-known problem. First, most cases for example, clinical ethics consultations, commission work, and so forth reveal that there is a broad consensus among people concerning the results practical level but that they—quite often—differ considerably in their justifications at the theoretical level. Secondly, it might well be the case—as some scholars such as Gert and Beauchamp claim—that some people without adhering to moral relativism have equally good reasons about what to do in practice but, nonetheless, still differ about what and why it should be done.

Contrary to the first response, the second response is more alarming since the idea that people could have equally good reasons for differing suggestions seems odd, at least at first sight. At second glance, however, moral judgements might not only depend on pure reason alone but are influenced by different cultures, religions, and traditions that would substantiate the claim of different outcomes and justifications. Whether one is, then, necessarily committed to a form of moral relativism can be reasonably questioned since one can still make the convincing distinction between a hard core of moral norms that is universally shared for example, that one should not commit murder or lie and that one should help people in need and other moral norms which are non-universal by nature.

If that is correct, then this would solve the issue of moral relativism. Deontological approaches such as provided by Kant and Ross are commonly characterized by applying usually strict moral rules or norms to concrete cases. Religious approaches, such as those of the Catholic Church, and non-religious deontological approaches, such as Kantian-oriented theories, are prime examples of applying moral rules. For example, the extreme conservative position of the Catholic Church justifies that one should not abort fetuses, under any circumstances, including in cases of rape Noonan and forbids the use of condoms. Furthermore, the Catholic Church regularly defends its strict religious position in end-of-life cases to prolong human life as long as possible and not to practice euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide because human life is sacred and given as a gift from God.

In this respect, religious approaches are necessarily faced with the objection of speciesism, if they claim that it is sufficient to be a member of the human species in order to be protected. In other words, there is a fundamental disagreement inherent in the notion of human dignity—roughly, the idea that there is something special about human beings—and the ascription of moral status to non-human nature such as animals and plants. Kantianism has been adopted in order to provide a justification for strict truth telling in medical contexts, for example, in cases of terminal cancer, bedside rationing, and medical experiments. This development can be seen as a counter-movement against previous malpractice.

The former practice consisted in not telling the truth to the patient in order either not to cause additional harm or not to undermine the goals of the medical experiments for example, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. In particular, it is nowadays used to avoid abuses in research experiments on human subjects. The sad examples of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the Human Radiation Experiments clearly show the dangers of researchers acting in a highly dubious and immoral way see, The Belmont Report Additionally, deontological approaches have been used in the fields of animal ethics Regan , Korsgaard , , Wood and environmental ethics Taylor , Korsgaard Genuine religious approaches are problematic by virtue of their strong commitment to religious presuppositions such as the existence of God as the ultimate source of morality or the absolute sacredness of the human life.

In modern—or rather secular—societies, this line of reasoning cannot be taken as a universal starting point to justify moral norms for religious and non-religious people alike in medical contexts on issues such as abortion, euthanasia, the use of contraceptives, and genetic enhancement. Despite the prima facie reasonableness of Kantian-oriented deontological approaches in cases concerning truth telling and in the context of medical exploitation, they particularly suffer from using moral norms too general and abstract to be applied without difficulty or stiltedness to concrete cases.

The upshot is that deontological approaches are less effective at providing adequate guidance since their application is too complex and possibly misleading for a different view, see Altman or causes strong counter-intuitive intuitions in the case of religious positions. One of the most prominent and influential ways of ethical reasoning and decision making in the field of bioethics is based on utilitarianism. In the late twentieth century, utilitarian approaches were so influential that many people outside academia believed that all bioethicists were utilitarians. Utilitarianism, in fact, contains a wide range of different approaches, but one can distinguish four important core elements that all utilitarian approaches have in common:.

In this context, utilitarians claim that one should focus on the patient avoiding pain and suffering, and therefore one should, for example, allow terminally ill patients to obtain physician-assisted suicide. Furthermore, the religious idea that human life is sacred and hence must be protected from the moment of conception is rejected by utilitarians who believe that religious claims are unsubstantiated and incompatible with the requirements of a modern, secular nation-state for example, research on human embryos and genetic enhancement should be made possible. In addition, abortion and infanticide in cases where the baby has a severe disability should be possible depending on the circumstances of the particular case and by appealing to the idea of personhood Singer , Kuhse and Singer , Giubilini and Minerva According to Singer, one should not be allowed to kill a human being or sentient animal if one can detect in that being rationality and self-consciousness—the core elements of personhood according to Singer.

To treat sentient animals with interests differently than human beings is speciesism which is comparable to sexism and racism and must be avoided. Moral judgements, according to utilitarians, should always be impartial and universal. Singer additionally claims that human beings must consider the equal interests of human beings and animals alike. In addition, the idea that minority groups such as people with severe disabilities and patients in a permanent vegetative state can be legitimately sacrificed in some cases has led to a rather bad reputation for utilitarian approaches. Utilitarians are also at odds with approaches in bioethics that appeal to human dignity and human rights.

One of the most important approaches in bioethics or medical ethics is the four-principle approach developed by Tom Beauchamp and James Childress , latest edition Since then they have continually refined their approach and integrated the points of criticism raised by their opponents, most notably Gert et al. The four-principle approach, often simply called principlism , consists of four universal prima facie mid-level ethical principles: 1 autonomy, 2 non-maleficence, 3 beneficence, and 4 justice. According to Beauchamp and Childress:. The common morality is the set of norms shared by all persons committed to morality. The common morality is not merely a morality, in contrast to other moralities.

The common morality is applicable to all persons in all places, and we rightly judge all human conduct by its standards. Particular moralities, instead, contain non-universal moral norms which stem from different cultural, religious, and institutional sources. These norms—unlike the abstract and content-thin principles of the common morality—are concrete and rich in substance. Beauchamp and Childress use the methods of specification and balancing to enrich the abstract and content-thin universal principles with empirical data from the particular moralities. The method of specification is, according to Beauchamp,. Many already specified norms will need further specification to handle new circumstances of indeterminateness and conflict.

Beauchamp Even though the four-principle approach certainly belongs to the most prevalent, authoritative, and widely used bioethical approaches, this approach has not been unquestioned and has provoked serious objections. The three most important objections are: first, the lack of ethical guidance because there is no master principle in cases of conflict among the principles Gert et al.

The revival of virtue ethics in moral philosophy in the last century was most notably spearheaded by Anscombe , MacIntyre , Williams , Nussbaum , , and more recently Hursthouse , , Slote , Swanton , and Oakley This approach also deeply influenced the ethical reasoning and decision making in the field of bioethics, particularly in medical ethics for example, Foot , Shelp , Hursthouse , Pellegrino , Pellegrino and Thomasma , McDougall The general idea of virtue ethical approaches in bioethics is that one should act in accordance with what the virtuous agent would have chosen.

In more detail, an action is morally right if it is done by adhering to the ethical virtues in order to promote human flourishing and well-being; the action is morally good if the person in question acts on the basis of the right motive as well as his or her action is based on a firm and good character or disposition. That means an action that is morally right for instance, to help the needy but performed according to the wrong motive such as to gain honour and reputation is not morally good. The right action and the right motive must both come together in virtue ethics. For a detailed view of how contemporary virtue ethics focuses on action and the rightness of action against the background of the general idea of living a good life, see in particular Hursthouse chapters , Swanton chapter 11 , and Slote chapter 1.

Generally speaking, virtue ethical approaches put a lot of weight on the particular agent. Virtue ethical approaches have been applied in medical ethics by, for example, Foot on euthanasia , Lebacqz on the virtuous patient , Hursthouse on abortion , Oakley and Cocking on professional roles , and Holland on virtue politics The role of virtue ethics in the field of environmental ethics has been examined by Frasz and Hursthouse , and in the field of animal ethics by Hursthouse and Merriam It is a matter of debate see for example, Kihlbom , Holland , whether the strengths of virtue ethical approaches are limited to single cases individual level or whether they are also equally good candidates in cases of developing biomedical procedures for regulatory policy societal level.

In addition, Jansen , for example, argues that virtue ethical approaches face two serious problems, which cannot be sufficiently resolved by adhering to virtue ethics. First is the problem of content: vague virtues are unable to give proper guidance. Second is the problem of pluralism: competing conceptions of the good life complicate a sound solution.

Virtues only have a limited function; for example, in the context of medicine they should enable the physician to become a virtuous practitioner abiding by the right motive. But, even in this case, Jansen claims that the right action should prevail over the right motive. However, Nussbaum argues persuasively, by appealing to Aristotle, that ethical virtues are non-relative by nature and allow for variations. The revival of casuistry as an inductive method of ethical reasoning and decision making in the second half of the twentieth century coincides with a wide and persistent critique of principle-oriented approaches, most notably principlism, deontological ethics, and utilitarianism in bioethics.

Casuistry had its historical heyday in moral theology and ethics during the period from the fifteenth to the seventeenth century in Europe. After a long time of no importance or influence in moral philosophy, it gained a significant importance in bioethics—mostly in clinical ethics—after the vital publications of Jonsen and Toulmin , Strong , and Brody Casuists attack the traditional idea of simply applying universal moral rules and norms to complex cases in order to solve the problem in question—that is, a moral theory justifies a moral principle or several principles which in turn justifies a moral rule or several rules which in turn justifies the moral judgement concerning a particular case. The circumstances make the case and are of utmost importance in order to yield a good solution see moral particularism.

For example, Strong claims that it might be that a complex case lies right in between two reference cases and hence one is unable to find a clear solution; in such a case different solutions might be equally justified. In general, casuists argue that universal principles and rules are unable to solve complex cases in a sufficient way since the complexity of the moral life is too great for example, Toulmin , Brody The general strategy in casuistry can be described as follows:. Case sensitivity and the partial integration of cultural and community bound values and expectations are, in general, advantageous in ethical reasoning and decision making. But it seems equally true that this approach presents some difficulties as well.

Furthermore, casuistry seems to presuppose a widespread agreement on basic values in the community and, therefore, is doomed to failure in pluralistic cultures Wildes Finally, casuistry may have difficulty providing solutions to rather general bioethical regulatory policies since it is completely focused on cases. Whether a series of similar cases may warrant a particular regulatory practice from a casuistical point of view is a matter of debate see virtue ethics , but it seems fair to say that the very meaning of casuistry really concerns cases and not general rules which can be adopted as binding regulations. Feminist bioethics can only be fully appreciated if one understands the context in which this increasingly important approach evolved during the late twentieth century Tong , Wolf , Donchin and Purdy , Rawlinson The social and political background of feminist bioethics is feminism and feminist theory with its major social and political goal to end the oppression of women and to empower them to become an equal gender.

The apparent differences between men and women have often led cultures to treat them in radically different ways, ways that often disadvantage women. Thus women have been allocated to social roles that leave them worse off with respect to benefits enjoyed by men, such as freedom and power. Yet despite their differences in reproductive roles, women and men share many morally relevant characteristics such as rationality and the capacity for suffering, and hence deserve fundamental equality. In more detail, the most important task in the long struggle regarding the goals of feminism was to combine two distinct features that were both vital in order to fight against traditional power relations. That is, the idea that men and women are equal and different at the same time.

They are equal by virtue of gender equality and different because the proponents stress a particular feminist perspective. The combination of both aspects is, in general, a difficult task for feminist ethics since, on the one hand, the proponents must avoid the common trap of speaking in traditional dualistic ways of care versus justice, particularity versus universality, and emotion versus reason and, on the other hand, they must carve out the specific differences of the feminist perspective Haker Historically speaking, feminist ethics developed in strong opposition to the traditional male-oriented approaches which genuinely appealed to universal moral rights and principles, such as principlism, deontological approaches and utilitarianism Gilligan , Gudorf , Lebacqz Feminist ethics, instead, is construed differently by adhering to a context-sensitive and particularist ethics of care as well as by appealing to core values such as responsibility, relational autonomy, care, compassion, freedom, and equality Gilligan , Noddings , Jagger The ethics of care, however, is a necessary but not sufficient depiction of feminist ethics since the latter has, in general, become more refined and sophisticated with its different branches Tong , Cole and Coultrap-McQuin Feminist bioethics developed from the early s on and was initially focused on medical ethics Holmes and Purdy , Warren , Tong ; proponents later extended the areas of interest to issues in the fields of animal and environmental ethics Plumwood , Warren, , Mies and Shiva , Donovan Important topics in feminist bioethics are concerned with the correct understanding of autonomy as relational autonomy Sherwin , , Mackenzie and Stoljar , Donchin , a strong focus on care Kittay , the claim for an equal and just treatment of women in order to fight against discrimination within healthcare professions and institutions on many different levels Miles , Tong In more detail, from a feminist perspective the following bioethical issues are of great importance: abortion, reproductive medicine, justice and care, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, sex selection, exploitation and abuse of women, female genital circumcision, breast cancer, contraception and HIV, equal access to and quality of healthcare and healthcare resources, global bioethics and cultural issues.

The main line of reasoning is to make a well informed ethical decision which is not gender biased and to appeal to important core values. Feminist bioethics is by nature particularistic and in this respect it is similar to many virtue ethical approaches and casuistry. Without any doubt, feminist bioethics initiated discussion of important topics, provided valuable insights, and caused a return to a more meaningful way of ethical reasoning and decision making by, for example, not only adhering to universal moral norms. On the other hand, it can be doubted whether feminist bioethics—all things considered—can be seen as a well-equipped and full moral theory. It may be that feminist bioethics complements the traditional ethical theories by adding an important and new perspective that is, the feminist standpoint to the debate.

Several vital methodological topics still need to be clarified in more detail and put into a broader moral context—such as how to avoid the traditional dualistic way of speaking about things and at the same time stressing a particular feminist standpoint; the problem of loyalty towards family and close friends and impartiality in ethics universalism versus particularism ; and feminist bioethics and the global perspective.

Developing feminist bioethics is on the agenda of many scholars working in the fields of virtue ethics and casuistry. Thus, feminist bioethics comes in for the standard objections raised by the opponents of virtue ethics and casuistry alike. Everything you need for every book you read. The way the content is organized and presented is seamlessly smooth, innovative, and comprehensive. LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Oliver Twist , which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Because the parish determines that the workhouse does not have a woman in place to care for Oliver , he is "farmed" to a branch-workhouse three miles away, where he plays with twenty or so other young children.

He is nursed "by hand," or with a bottle. The woman in charge of this branch-house, Mrs. Mann , spends most of the parish stipend on her own purchases, and leaves only a very small amount to feed the children, many of whom die of malnourishment. But the surgeon and the local beadle make sure not to investigate the branch-house's activities, which continues operating to the detriment of the children in it. Although this "farming house" is supposed to exist to raise the children of deceased parents, it mainly serves to keep these children "out of the way. Those children that do, almost by accident, survive to "grow up" will simply be placed in the workhouse, to labor alongside other paupers—and to be shelved, similarly, out of sight of the general populace.

Active Themes. Thievery and Crime. It is Oliver's ninth birthday, and Mr. Bumble , the beadle, or church official in charge of administering the Poor Laws in that region, has arrived to speak with Mrs. Mann about him. The beadle declares also, as an aside, that he gave Oliver his full name he invented the first, and the last was the next alphabetically, after a previous boy named "Swubble". After this, the beadle announces that Oliver, being aged nine, will have to leave the "farm" and return to the workhouse. Oliver's iconic last name was invented by Bumble and assigned to him—much of the novel, indeed, will be a search for Oliver's origins, for his "true name.

From the age of nine, Oliver is expected to work like an adult. Poverty, Institutions, and Class.

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