✍️✍️✍️ Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper
Perhaps the most comprehensive assessment Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper the psychometric properties of the self-report method was conducted by The Myth Of Co-Parenting Analysis and his colleagues Another way of reducing the number of delinquency cases is by reducing the rates at Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper juvenile Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper recidivate. The other two rely on social surveys. Some effort must be made to adjust or censor the data to remove these events if the delinquency of the subjects is Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper be Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper properly and if Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper rank order of subjects with Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper Alphabetic Spoken Language delinquency is to be Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper properly. Scales representing more serious, less frequently occurring offenses index offenses, felony assault, felony theft, robbery have the highest precision, with Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper to percent agreement, followed Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper the less serious offenses minor assault, minor theft, property damagewith Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper to 95 percent agreement. Present Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper analysis of the impact of bullying and Juvenile Delinquents Research Paper classroom environment. The total score is then standardized into a T-score.
An insider’s plan for rehabilitating the juvenile justice system - Jeff Wallace - TEDxNaperville
Tools from the field of youth justice are used specifically to identify and assess the risk of re-offending among young offenders. These tools are used in the area of youth justice, primarily with young people who have already committed criminal offences or had contact with the police. Since youth offending is often accompanied by related problems, Footnote 14 the screening and assessment of these problems should also be integrated within a comprehensive prevention approach.
Concerning the problem of youth gangs, more in-depth research should be conducted in order to learn more about the tools available and assess their scientific thoroughness validity, reliability and consistency. Tools for identifying youth at risk of offending are defined as instruments designed to screen at-risk youth so they can be referred to resources and provided with appropriate services and programs. These tools help establish targeted selective prevention mechanisms by intervening with a specific youth clientele. One of the methods used in designing identification tools is the behavioural measurement scale. These scales assess the presence and frequency of certain problem behaviours in order to measure the level of risk for the youth.
The total score obtained is then used to determine the overall level of risk based on predetemined cut-off points. To illustrate an example of a cut-off point, a result of 5 and under will mean no risk; from 6 to 11, low risk; from 12 to 17, moderate risk; and 18 and over, high risk. The tools developed on the basis of these cut-off points require the evaluator to be vigilant. Even though they are supported by weighted or relational models, these tools carry the risk of identifying individuals who do not have real problems false positives or, conversely, of failing to identify those who have false negatives.
Constant attention must therefore be paid to results within two points of the cut-off point between two risk levels. Certain tools will also supplement these scales with questions about whether there are risk or problem factors, as well as binary questions where one of the poles describes an appropriate behaviour and the other a problem behaviour. The more positively a young person responds to the criteria of problem behaviour, the more he or she will be considered to be at risk of offending. Other tools are based on normative results, that is, the distribution of the test results of a specific group. These norms are indicators of similar characteristics among people subjected to the same test.
Normalized results then serve as a basis for situating and comparing a young person's results to the norm. Some of the tools presented in this report bring forward prescriptive results based on age and gender, i. Screening tools are used in various settings, particularly in schools or as part of programs supported by local communities. They may also be used in institutional settings during meetings among professionals providing youth services e.
There is a long tradition of using risk assessment tools, particularly with young offenders involved in the justice system. Footnote 15 Based on risk factor models, these instruments assess the level of risk of offending or re-offending in youth. They are used to gather information based on an in-depth analyses of the young person's current and past situation. The results obtained help to develop a tailored intervention or treatment plan that corresponds to both the risk level and the main risk factors identified.
Without going into the methodological details or the various generations of risk assessment tools used with young offenders, Footnote 16 two types are worth noting: actuarial assessment and clinical assessment of risk. Actuarial risk assessment is essentially defined as assessment that is based on a statistical model of significant, even quasi-predictive, relationships between the main risk factors associated with delinquency and the young person's behaviours. Although clinical risk assessment is also based on facts and risk factors, professionals use their professional judgment when making a diagnosis. It would appear that combining the results of actuarial risk assessments and clinical judgments may help assess an offender's risk of re-offending.
Of all the risk assessment tools used with youth at high risk of offending and reoffending behaviour, the most appropriate ones identified in the literature are those that are based on the dynamic risk factors associated with delinquency. They emphasize the main risk factors known to be associated with delinquency past and current , their frequency, their variety and their intensity. Footnote 18 The results obtained from this type of assessment are considered reliable and accurate. Interpreting the results generally requires appropriate skills and qualifications in a field such as social work, forensic psychology or developmental criminology. Some prevention programs have been implemented with instruments specifically designed for them, however, some do not have tools pre-selected for mandatory use as part of their program.
Therefore, program managers who want to use a tool must select one that is appropriate for their program. Here are a few practical tips for selecting a tool to identify or assess the risk of offending among youth. Essentially, when selecting a tool, you have to ensure that there is compatibility between: 1 the program's and the tool's selection and implementation criteria, and 2 the program's and the tool's objectives. Making an informed selection of a tool requires thorough knowledge of the program's objectives and procedures, as well as respect for the program's mission. In other words, the reasons and requirements for using a given tool as part of the program must be clear.
Use of the tools also means that the organizations responsible for program delivery must have an information management system. This system, usually specialized software, structures and organizes all the data collected. With that said, the need for such a system increases as a growing number of young people participate in the program. Also, all data entered into this information management system will help evaluate the program's impact and monitor the progress of a young person participating in the program. Footnote 27 However, this also poses substantial ethical and practical issues. Footnote 28 The following is a summary of the main strengths and weaknesses of integrating these tools into a preventive initiative. Standardized use of tools can help establish an integrated delinquency prevention initiative by making it possible to inter-relate the various steps involved in the identification and assessment of the risk of offending.
Targeted identification of the right youth, an in-depth assessment and tailored intervention plans will help establish an integrated delinquency prevention initiative i. Furthermore, after a few months of participation in a program three to six , a follow-up and a review can be done using the same tool used for the intake assessment. In programs that extend over several months, follow-up is a central dimension for analyzing the young person's progress in the program, ensuring that the objectives are achieved, and adjusting interventions when necessary and appropriate. Targeted prevention requires focussing on the appropriate clientele.
The use of instruments that help screen youth who present various risk factors is therefore essential for this targeted prevention. Tools developed from the model of risk factors associated with delinquency or developed from models borrowed from developmental psychology offer this advantage. In addition, directly linked to this advantage, the use of an identification tool to recruit the appropriate clientele ensures that decisions are supported with concrete and substantiated results. Beyond the popular perception that a young person is difficult, the tool provides practitioners with objective data on the young person's behaviours and attitudes.
Using a tool as part of a prevention program may stimulate a coordinated and concerted discussion and information sharing among the various local partners e. While considering the privacy challenges of information sharing, the arrangement of partnership protocols and collaborative agreements could help develop local processes that are standardized, sound and shared by the relevant partners involved. One of the inherent limitations of certain instruments is that they are designed using cut-offs, i.
Interpreting results that fall within two points of the cut-off between two categories requires considerable vigilance to avoid overrepresentation and labelling of at-risk youth, as well as the failure to identify and provide services to youth with real needs. While recognizing their usefulness and scientific foundation, the tools are neither a panacea nor a predictor of future behaviour: they are indicators that are themselves subject to error.
A risk assessment tool can generate probability errors. For example, some youth assessed at a high risk of re-offending will never re-offend, while youth assessed at a low risk of re-offending will re-offend. Furthermore, we must also constantly be aware that the results do not allow for a distinction, within a group of at-risk youth, between those who will have minor behavioural problems over a fairly short period of time, and those who will adopt a life trajectory oriented toward more serious and chronic crimes. Based on the complexity of the case and the seriousness of the behaviours, practitioners must act in accordance with their professional code and their expertise.
Footnote 33 As pointed out by the Youth Justice Board, Footnote 34 in order to reduce the risks of subjectivity and errors in interpretation, it is important to discuss during team meetings the results obtained and to continuously focus on the reasons and facts that support decisions. Stigmatization, or the process of labelling certain individuals, is a significant weakness associated with use of these tools, and should not be overlooked.
Stigmatization can lead to over-assessment of risk for youth said to be at high-risk, as can the stigmatization of youth who are labelled at-risk or in need of control, Footnote 35 and then become a lever leading to more severe punitive measures Footnote 36 being imposed on this population. In a delinquency-related field, according to an opinion poll conducted in England by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, Footnote 37 people who suffer from dependencies, in particular alcoholism and substance abuse, Footnote 38 are perceived and labelled by the general public as dangerous and unpredictable.
The results of this poll have shown that labelling unreasonably exacerbates the social handicaps that these people suffer from. This stigmatization leads to increased isolation, social distress and difficulty finding employment. With regard to the age variable, it is essential to ensure that the tool's age group corresponds to the age group targeted by the program. The variables and aspects measured by the tool will not be the same across different age groups. For children aged 5 to 10, the tools will mainly focus on factors such as aggressive and violent thinking, pro-social behaviour and the adoption of aggressive behaviour. For young people aged 11 to 24, the tools will mainly address factors such as violent and offending behaviours, conflict resolution strategies, social and emotional skills, peer influence, parental supervision and monitoring, family relationships, exposure to violence, integration in the group, and neighbourhood characteristics.
Footnote 40 Also, the weight given to certain risk factors will vary depending on the age group. In terms of the gender variable, more in-depth research should be conducted to develop gender-specific tools. Certain factors, such as the prevalence of family risk factors and internalized behavioural problems, seem to be more present in girls, confirming the importance of having a gender-specific tool in order to assess these factors. Footnote 44 On the other hand, one meta-analysis based on predictive risk assessment results according to gender has shown that predictive validity varied very little whether the tool was used with boys or girls.
Other experimental and longitudinal studies should focus on analyzing gender specificity in developmental offending trajectories for girls, and to the preponderance, frequency and comorbidity of certain risk factors. Using the same tool with different cultures raises the issues of limitations and the lack of data on specificities in the nature and intensity of certain risk factors linked to specific cultural groups, and whether or not these tools require adaptation. Over-representation of youth at risk from cultural groups caused by the inappropriate use of tools is a factor that should not be overlooked. In this context, according to experts, the over-representation of Black children could be perceived as racial segregation or an attempt to remove Black children from the public school system.
There are many repercussions at all levels of such over-representation of one segment of the population. Important consideration should be given to developing research projects into identifying the specific risk factors for offending among youth from cultural groups, in the Canadian context, so as to determine whether it is necessary to adapt the tools for identifying and assessing youth at risk of offending. There is a considerable body of knowledge on the risk factors associated with child and youth offending. Incorporating screening and risk assessment tools into a prevention initiative will reinforce the actions and interventions to be taken by directing them toward appropriate targets, structuring them and modelling them based on the nature and level of the risk presented by the young person.
Furthermore, identifying youth at risk before they escalate into an aggravated offending trajectory would help improve their positive development into adulthood and reduce the social and economic costs associated with youth crime. Whether they are used in the field of youth justice or in the related field of delinquency prevention, the tools support the decision making and the analysis of monitoring level necessary for interventions. These tools must be used to help with decision making and implementation of structured actions. Furthermore, the initial step of the process is to ensure having the proper training as well as the necessary experience before using a tool.
Nonetheless, a better understanding is needed of all the risk and protective factors surrounding the processes of persisting in and abandoning an offending trajectory, for both boys and girls, for different age groups, and at specific transition points in their development. More in-depth knowledge of risk and protective factors would facilitate the selection of tools in order to improve the screening of young people, more accurately assess their level of risk of offending, and implement effectively preventive programs based on research into at-risk youth.
Augimeri, L. In Grisso, T. Vincent and D. Seagrave Eds. Koegl and S. Bailey, S. Juvenile Delinquency. In Rutter, M. Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Blackwell Publishing, 5th edition, Chapter 68, Beuhring, T. In Corrado, R. Bonta, J. Risk and Need Assessment. In McIvor, G. Raynor Eds. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Campbell, M. French and P. Ottawa: Public Safety Canada. Carrington, P. Matarazzo and P. Court Careers of a Canadian Birth Cohort. Crime and Justice Research Paper Series.
Corrado, R. Crisp, A. Dahlberg, L. Dumaray, M. Grisso, T. New York: Guilford Press. Hahhah-Moffat, K. Hawkins, J. Predictors of Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Hawkins, S. Hinshaw, S. Hoge, R. Howell, J. In Loeber, R. Farrington Eds. Thousand Oaks, Huizinga, D. Loeber and L. Co-occurrence of Delinquency and Other Problem Behaviors. Janosz, M. Le Blanc. Kamphaus, R. Boston: A Pearson Education Company. Le Blanc, M. Levene, K. Loeber, R. Farrington and D. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Bulletin Series Child Delinquency. Logue, L. Concepts of Risk and Protective Factors. Backgrounder distributed at an information session. No dated. Merrell, K. Miller, J. Some Practical and Theoretical Lessons. Minogue, N. Kingery and L.
Approaches to Assessing Violence Among Youth. Moffitt, T. Moretti, M. Morizot, J. National Crime Prevention Centre. Crime Prevention Glossary. Promising and Model Crime Prevention Programs. O'Shaughnessy, J. Piper, C. Investing in Children. Policy, Law and Practice in Context. Willan Publishing. Reppucci, D. Youth Violence: Risk and Protective Factors. Rutter, M. Giller and A. Antisocial Behavior by Young People. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Savignac, J. Schwalbe, C. Scottish Government the. Serin, R. Psychological Intervention in Corrections. In Leis, T. Motivk and J. Ogloff Eds. Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada, Smith, R. Which of the following statements about Okazaki fragments in E. True or false? Which one of the following statements is not correct? Which of the following is true of osmosis? Which of the following should not be considered cash by an accountant? Price controls are usually enacted when policymakers believe that the market price of a good or service is unfair to buyers or sellers. True or False. What is the meaning of title Pulp Fiction? If you know a lot about the topic, you can develop a research question based on your own knowledge. If you feel you don't know much about the topic, think again.
For example, if you're assigned a research topic on an issue confronting the ancient Babylonian family, remember, by virtue of your own family life, you already know a great deal about family issues. Once you determine what you do know, then you're ready to do some general reading in a textbook or encyclopedia in order to develop a usable research question. It's a good idea to evaluate your research question before completing the research exercise Exercise 3 and to ask a writing learning coach or tutor for feedback on your research question. And you also should check your research question with your course instructor. A topic is what the essay or research paper is about. It provides a focus for the writing.
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